Using the currently available technology, nitric oxide (NO) is oxidized to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at ambient temperature at the time of delivery to the patient. The rate of this reaction is second order for nitric oxide and first order for O2, meaning that the rate increases by the square of the nitric oxide concentration and proportional to the oxygen concentration.
GeNO is currently developing next-generation inhaled NO drug delivery systems for use in both hospital and outpatient settings. GeNOsyl® Acute DS is being developed for use in the hospital setting, and GeNOsyl Chronic DS is designed to be a lightweight system that can be worn by patients with chronic diseases for use outside of the hospital setting.
Both of our products operate by producing NO gas from liquid NO2, stored in a single-use drug cassette containing two proprietary reactor cartridges. The cassette is inserted either into a console in the case of GeNOsyl Acute DS, or a controller in the case of GeNOsyl Chronic DS. The console or controller converts the liquid NO2 into NO2 gas, which is then converted into therapeutic NO and delivered to the patient.
Single-Use Drug Cassette
The conversion of liquid NO2 to therapeutic NO takes place in our proprietary, single-use drug cassette. Similar single-use drug cassettes are used in both GeNOsyl Acute DS and GeNOsyl Chronic DS. These cassettes store the liquid NO2 and are designed for 24 hours of use or for shorter periods, for example when used as a diagnostic. These disposable cassettes are about the size of a paperback book.
The basis of our NO delivery system is our proprietary reactor cartridge that converts NO2 gas into highly purified, therapeutic NO. Our conversion technology allows us to produce NO from small amounts of liquid NO2. As NO2 gas passes through the reactor cartridge, a single oxygen atom is stripped away from each NO2 molecule to create NO. The surface area of the substrate to which the antioxidant is bound in the cartridge is equivalent to that of several football fields so that the NO2 has innumerable collisions with the antioxidant contained in the reactor cartridge.
Each reactor cartridge is designed with extra capacity to convert significantly more than the content of the vial of liquid NO2into NO, providing redundant capacity per cartridge for safety. Only one reactor cartridge is needed for a therapeutic application, but we include a second, identical cartridge that is produced from a different manufacturing lot, for added redundancy.
Consoles and Controllers
To activate our NO drug delivery system, the single-use drug cassette is inserted into a portable console for GeNOsyl Acute DS, or a wearable controller for GeNOsyl Chronic DS. The NO is delivered to the patient through a ventilator for patients using GeNOsyl Acute DS or through a nasal cannula or mask for patients using GeNOsyl Chronic DS. Our products under development are being designed to control the amount of NO that is delivered to the patient under all ambient conditions.